There are generally four concepts in international law that describe a state’s wrongful acts: violation of sovereignty, prohibited intervention, use of force, and armed attack. These four concepts emerged in the pre-internet era, thus the application of them in cyberspace has caused many disagreements. However, notwithstanding the disagreements on the scope of any particular concepts,… Continue reading Why is the “Spectrum Model” of Internationally Wrongful Acts Problematic in Cyberspace?
Discussions of the Espionage Act usually focus on the public’s conception of “spying.” Spies steal information that their government seeks to keep secret and disclose that information to other governments. A common acronym, “MICE,” describes the common motivations for spying: money, ideology, compromise, and ego. The Espionage Act, however, covers a broader set of conduct… Continue reading Willfulness and the Harm of Unlawful Retention of National Security Information
By Sadev Parikh Eric Ravenscraft’s Wired article shows us the difficulty of defining the “metaverse,” which may be better understood through the lens of Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblances than through any attempt at clear-cut definition. Metaverse can be seen as a concept made up of family resemblances that include elements of virtual reality, augmented… Continue reading A Multiverse of Metaverses