Category Archives: Cyberespionage


Deterring Financially Motivated Cybercrime

In “Deterring Financially Motivated Cybercrime,” Zachary K. Goldman and Damon McCoy present three strategies for deterring attacks that use malicious cyber capabilities to generate a profit. Each strategy—the imposition of financial sanctions, public/private partnerships to disrupt tools of cybercrime, and activities to disrupt payment networks run by criminals who sell fraudulent goods over the Internet—is analyzed for strengths and weaknesses. The authors conclude with a discussion of the ways in which regulatory tools to combat cybercrime can overcome problems with formulating a cohesive deterrent strategy such as secrecy and attribution.


Spying & Fighting in Cyberspace: What is Which?

Brown presents the nuances of cyberespionage versus cyberattacks that are becoming more pervasive in the national security context. He defines the differences between the two, and proposes a method of analyzing cyberspace operations to properly categorize them. Then, using an extended hypothetical and several real-life examples, Brown illustrates how dangerous cyber operations can be, and the need to properly define them so as to respond most effectively.

A Comparative Study of the Information Security Policies of Japan and the United States

This article describes the information security policies and institutions of the Japanese government and draws attention to comparable policies and institutions of the U.S. government. We begin with a discussion of Japan’s cybersecurity system. In Part II, we examine a particular type of information security policy, namely, cryptography policy, as a special example of how the different systems operate. Japan has implemented a cryptography policy that draws extensively on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Cryptography Policy Guidelines. These guidelines are discussed to highlight issues that might emerge in the future in cryptography and merit attention at an international level. Part III analyzes anti-bot policy. Bots, an increasing concern on the Internet, break into an individual user’s PC and remotely control it. Bots pose a real problem for many nations, and there is clearly a need for multinational cooperation. This article concludes by suggesting that all involved parties must determine the appropriate extent of lawful access to communications. Moreover, cooperation in eliminating bots provides a good opportunity for Japan and the United States to lead an international effort.