In this article, Gabor Rona and Lauren Aarons explore how international human rights law applies to cyberspace. They address the substantive obligations of the state responsibility to respect, ensure, and promote human rights in cyberspace, including protecting against third party abuse and providing remedies for violations. Finally, the authors outline the limitations of and permissible restrictions on human rights obligations in cyberspace.
In his essay on domestic surveillance, Philip Heymann explores the ways in which technological advancements have changed expectations of privacy and the legal protections against government intrusion. He outlines current constitutional and other legal protections, including evolving limitations on government activity that could be considered not a “search” under the Fourth Amendment. Heymann concludes with predictions about the future balance between citizens’ demands for privacy and the government need for information.
David Kris examines recent developments in foreign intelligence surveillance, including the impact of the Snowden leaks and the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant on public and political attitudes towards electronic surveillance. In light of these developments, Kris presents several issues that he expects will surface as the 2017 expiration date of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Amendments Act (FAA) draws near. He also addresses the longer-term impacts that other political and technological developments will have on foreign surveillance.
Brown presents the nuances of cyberespionage versus cyberattacks that are becoming more pervasive in the national security context. He defines the differences between the two, and proposes a method of analyzing cyberspace operations to properly categorize them. Then, using an extended hypothetical and several real-life examples, Brown illustrates how dangerous cyber operations can be, and the need to properly define them so as to respond most effectively.