In the United States, the discussion about immigration is dominated by a narrow focus on the security of the borders, particularly the southern border, and the potential threats posed by people who seek enter the country. However, the national security implications of the refugee crisis go way beyond the borders. Protecting refugees, rather than keeping them out, is a national security imperative.
In this article, Anthony Pfaff discusses what ethical norms should govern proxy war and the relationships that sustain them; the way the existence of a benefactor-proxy relationship complicates the application of traditional jus ad bellum criteria; and the additional moral problems caused by the way proxy wars shift risk away from benefactors. He concludes by suggesting a set of norms that should guide proxy relationships.
In coalition operations, individual States may be responsible in law for some, but not all, of the activities conducted, and coalition members will often have different legal obligations or varying interpretations of the same obligations. In this article, David S. Goddard explores the challenges of achieving legal interoperability—the effective managing of these differences— and suggests a framework for understanding and addressing this problem.