In this article, Sasha Romanosky and Zachary Goldman address the problem of how to define “collateral damage” in the cyber realm. Arguing that unintended effects on data alone can constitute collateral damage, Romanosky and Goldman propose ways for the US military and law enforcement to conceptualize and estimate collateral damage in the context of cyber operations.
In this article, Clare Sullivan posits that the 2014 hack of Sony Pictures Entertainment (“Sony Hack”) heralds the arrival of a new form of modern warfare. She argues that the current state of international law is inadequate to deal with hacks like this one, which do not cause physical damage but which nonetheless result in serious economic harm and violations of privacy. In the author’s view, a new approach is needed to ensure that countries are permitted under international law to respond to and take countermeasures against such hacks.
In “Deterring Financially Motivated Cybercrime,” Zachary K. Goldman and Damon McCoy present three strategies for deterring attacks that use malicious cyber capabilities to generate a profit. Each strategy—the imposition of financial sanctions, public/private partnerships to disrupt tools of cybercrime, and activities to disrupt payment networks run by criminals who sell fraudulent goods over the Internet—is analyzed for strengths and weaknesses. The authors conclude with a discussion of the ways in which regulatory tools to combat cybercrime can overcome problems with formulating a cohesive deterrent strategy such as secrecy and attribution.