On May 29, 2009, President Obama released his Cyberspace Policy Review (the Review). The Review, conducted by the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council, examined existing government initiatives addressing cyberspace security in order to develop a strategic framework to coordinate government action. The Review put cybersecurity on the policy agenda early in the Obama administration, and it explicitly describes cybersecurity as a global issue that calls for international cooperation: “The United States . . . needs a strategy for cybersecurity designed to shape the international environment and bring like-minded nations together on a host of issues… Only by working with international partners can the United States best address these challenges, enhance cybersecurity, and reap the full benefits of the digital age.”
On June 23, 2009, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates established the U.S. Cyber Command as a sub-unified command under the U.S. Strategic Command in order to defend military information networks against cyber attacks.1 This organization is the most recent Department of Defense (DoD) response to the increasing threats to U.S. military, government, and commercial information systems and rapidly developing adversarial network capabilities.